Safe Disposal of Medications

It is very important that drugs be disposed of when no longer needed, and that it be done in a proper manner. Old medicines lose their potency and can even become toxic in some cases. Medicines in the house are also a potential source of poisoning for young children. The best way to dispose of drugs is at an approved disposal center. In Knox County there are at least 2 such places.

Knoxville Police Department, 800 Howard Baker Jr Ave., Knoxville 37915 and Walgreen’s Pharmacy, 121 North Northshore Drive, Knoxville 37919. Both are open 24-7.

Disposing of drugs in the sink or toilet can result in water pollution and possibly affect wildlife. Even disposal in a garbage landfill could, in the long run, have toxic effects. Please do what is safest both for your family and for our community by using approved sites to get rid of outdated or unneeded medications.


An Evening Moment

Darkness. Your senses sharpen. Sounds become clearer as you hear the far off howl of a coyote, the call of an owl. Leaves rustle with the sound of wind above and tiny feet below. More and more stars appear as your eyes adjust. The trees cast their shadows from the light of the moon. Shades of gray reveal your way as your feet glide you over an uneven ground. Shadows become sharper as your eyes adjust and the path becomes clearer. The canopy of trees deepen the darkness beneath them and when the sky reappears the stars have filled the sky with brilliant points of light. The stillness of the night that envelops me is interrupted by the low whine of my four legged companion. A reminder that tomorrow is waiting. Time to go back inside.

Tattoos and Piercings

The cultural phenomenon of tattooing and piercing is going strong.  For this reason, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recently released recommendations on these practices. On a daily basis in our office, I witness both forms of body art and oftentimes have had to treat complications related to them most commonly local skin infections. While the legal age for tattooing in most states is 18, piercings are often done during mid-adolescence. Because of this, we as parents and pediatricians need to be discussing potential risks of tattooing and piercing starting early in the teen years.

Click here for the AAP recommendations.  


Secondary/Dry Drowning

Although fall is just around the corner, parents are still concerned about  “dry drowning” or “secondary drowning.”  I would like to reassure parents that dry drowning, in the fantastical way the media has portrayed it, is not a true entity. Your child will not have an uneventful day playing in the pool, swallow a mouthful of water that causes no respiratory symptoms, and suddenly die 5 days later from a “dry drowning.” Here are a couple links to articles written by emergency room physicians that explore this issue.



Mosquito Borne Illnesses

For those who have seen recent news reports, the thought of mosquito borne diseases can be scary. Typically, in East Tennessee, we see a significant number of mosquito related illnesses in late summer, mainly in late July, August and September. These illnesses have a wide range of severity, from mild upper respiratory symptoms to severe central nervous system infections. The most common mosquito borne illness in our area is Enterovirus infection. Enterovirus infection typically will cause some fever, body aches, sore throat, and in worse cases where the central nervous system is involved, will cause headaches and upset stomach. Routine Enterovirus infections typically run their course in 3-5 days and do not require antibiotics, since they are viruses and not susceptible to antibiotics. Some of the worst of these cases will require brief hospitalizations for patients with severe headache who need pain control, or those who are vomiting and unable to remain hydrated. These illnesses are uniformly short lived and patients make a complete recovery.

The less common but more serious mosquito borne infections come from a family of viruses called the LaCrosse family. These viruses are transmitted by a mosquito bite, exactly the same way enteroviruses are, but they tend to infect the spinal fluid and brain more frequently than enteroviruses. LaCrosse infections are typically more severe than Enterovirus infections and commonly lead to high fever, vomiting, seizures and other symptoms of meningitis. Unfortunately, like all viruses, these infections do not respond to antibiotics, and patients are treated supportively until they recover. A significant number of patients with LaCrosse Encephalitis will be left with long term problems due to their illness.

Obviously, we want to avoid these illnesses as much as possible. Based on expert recommendations, I routinely recommend using an insect repellent with DEET to my patients. Reasonable parents are extremely unlikely to use enough “bug spray” to cause any toxicity to their children and the risk of getting an illness from a mosquito bite in later summer is very real. Always use insect repellents in a well ventilated area, and do not spray them on the face.

For Good Health, Enjoy the Great Outdoors

I recently traveled and hiked in Norway. During my trip I discovered that every kid goes outside every day of the school year, often in rain and snow, frequently exploring in the woods found nearby. This and many other studies have shown that the Norsemen are educationally pretty smart cookies.

It’s Never Too Early!

It may seem a little early to start talking about the flu, but there are recent publications providing important preliminary recommendations for the upcoming flu season.  Notable is the recommendation that live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine (i.e. Flumist) NOT be used for the 2017-18 season so prepare your children for injectable flu vaccine only! This is doubtful to change when final guidelines from the CDC come out later this summer. According to the CDC there were 99 pediatric deaths due to influenza this past season. That’s 99 too many in my opinion! KPA is already preparing for the 2017-18 influenza season and will let you know soon when we’ll begin flu shots. Click here to link to an important article from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

The Best Places for Kids to Bike This Summer

I have a confession to make: I love riding bikes of all types. My husband and I enjoy road cycling, mountain biking and beach cruising. We have cycled in many places including Italy, Colorado and California, but some of the best biking is right here in our area. One of my goals is to get more kids interested in biking, and here are some great ways to get started.

Be a good example: always wear a helmet when cycling, even for short distances. If your child is interested in off road trails (aka mountain biking), elbow and knee pads are a good idea.

Be visible: if you’re going to ride near motorists, choose bright colors and use headlights and tail lights to make yourself standout to drivers.

Choose safe places to ride: Knoxville has an amazing network of greenways (112 miles!) that are a safe haven from motorists. Find the one closest to you here.

In Oak Ridge, the Melton Lake Greenway is a great choice… it has 5.7 miles of paved lakefront greenway trails.  Click here for information.

During the summer months, the Cades Cove Loop road in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park is closed to automobile traffic on Wednesday and Saturday mornings until 10:00.  While not exactly flat, its very doable for kids of all ages, and they’ll likely spot turkey and deer along the way.

If your child is more adventurous, Knoxville also has the Urban Wilderness, a 50 mile network of multi-use trails in wooded areas.  A great starter trail for kids is the Sycamore Loop (1.2 miles) at Baker Creek Preserve that is mostly flat. At Forks of the River, Wyatt’s Way leads to Dozer and the Will Skelton Greenway, which during the month of July features large fields of sunflowers.

Find maps here: Forks of the RiverBaker Creek

For older kids looking for more mountain biking, the TVA managed Loyston Point Recreation Area has  12.7 miles of multi-use trails that are suitable for kids.

For more information on biking in and around Knoxville check out and


7 Happiness Tips for New Parents

I will be expecting my first child in a few short weeks.  I am of course beyond excited to meet my baby!  But, as the due date is approaching, I have fears that have been popping up, too.  Will I be a good parent?   Will I be able to breastfeed?  Did I get the right car seat?  Do I have enough clothes?  Do I need a wipe warmer?  And, the list goes on and on…  Yes, I am a pediatrician, so I do know a thing or two about caring for babies, but there are a lot of things you do not learn in medical school.  I did not get any training on how to be a parent (does anyone?).  So, I can fully empathize with expecting parents!

Throughout the course of my pregnancy I have gotten a lot of advice.  I appreciate experienced families sharing with me tidbits about being a parent.  I find those that have already gone through being “new parents” are a great resource.  I will also say that it can be difficult at times to sift through all the advice in books, blogs, and even from friends and family.  I came across this short little piece that shares a few tips to being a happy parent, written by a pediatrician.  Most seem like common sense.  I am sure that at some point when I am sleep deprived and doing a 3 AM feeding, I will want to remind myself of these tips.   I feel some of the advice may also still hold true for seasoned parents.  I hope you find them helpful!  We all want to be good parents.

  1. Trust Yourself.

Some new parents get emotional whiplash flipping between feeling like you’ve got the job nailed…and feeling like a rookie.  But, you know what?  You are the newest, shiniest link in an unbroken chain of successful parents that stretches back to the beginning of time!   Things may actually get much stickier later on (fears, unfair friends, teen traumas, etc.).   But, for now, you will be a total success if you just keep to the basics:  love, touch, singing, milk and patience.

  1. Be Kind…to Yourself.

If you’re like many new parents, you’ve barely ever maybe even touched a newborn – before you had your own – yet you think you should automatically be a baby care pro.  Please, ask that “judge” in your head to take a hike.  Be as supportive to yourself as you would be to your best friend or significant other.  That’s a sure path to great satisfaction and happiness.

  1. Accept All the Help you Can Get.

Never before in history have moms and dads been expected to care for their newborns…all alone.  When parents are working, you may even be more pressed.  So don’t hesitate to ask or pay for help if you are able.  Lean on family and friends for support and most people genuinely want to help.  Who doesn’t love babies?  You’ll get more sleep and enjoy your beautiful growing family more fully

  1. Be Flexible.

You will naturally find that some parenting philosophies will make more sense than others.  It is great to have ideas and plans, but our children are here to challenge all of our preconceived expectations.  Stay flexible, especially when things aren’t going as planned (as that will happen!).  You may be surprised how “just rolling with it” can keep your mood going.

  1. Keep Your Sense of Humor Handy.

Remember, perfection is only found in the dictionary.  So, forget dignity, forget organization, be gentle with yourself, and laugh, laugh, laugh!  Laughter raises your spirits and lowers your stress!

  1. Take Care of Each Other. And Do Some Fun Stuff!

Caring for your baby is only half your job; the other is giving your significant other some TLC.